16. Life road to thickness of bowels.

    On a range of research-and-production association “Hydro-coal »in Novokuznetsk there have passed tests of the unique complex of mechanical people and cargoes delivery on inclined and horizontal developments to workings and clearing faces. To reach miners to working places and to bring up there cargoes always was the big problem for any coalmining enterprises. Railway lines are specially equipped for this purpose where carts and trolleys move with the help of a rope winch. That is very dangerous. Do not rescue positions and tape conveyors on which miners try to reach a face. Rope railways are imperfect and unsafe. In a word, a reliable transport for delivery of people and cargoes to a face while is not present. And here is a "first signs"...
    The main problem of a wheel transport in general and mining trolleys, carts in particular is hidden in an imperfection of a braking system . Braking joins only in an emergency. To take, for example, the usual car. Car brakes do not work during a movement on a good road . But just imagine a ditch there. The driver sharply presses  pedals, and only then inner brake pads work and the car is stopping. Well and if brakes have suddenly failed? Then a trouble can’t be passed.
   The same with an intramine transport. On inclined developments it goes down by means of a cable. We will admit, it has broken, such happens. And the trolley with people promptly slides downwards. The brake system calculated on an emergency. But it couldn’t and didn’t work, because on the same negligence of attendants the system was not checked for a long time, that was why left already out of an operation. That is all. The tragedy. There are lots of such cases in coalmines. Young scientist Oleg Atrushkevich undertook the decision of a problem about the safety of an intramine transport.
   Atrushkevich has offered instead of habitual railway lines in underground developments and wheel trolleys and carts on them to use linear columns of scraper conveyors where boards are put in the polyurethane and the rubber, having high properties of a friction. There are the passenger carriage and the cargo cart where instead of wheels — runners are made also from the polyurethane rubber. In such an underground tram it is possible to put down the whole miners brigade and easy go to a face. In the same way it is possible to deliver cargoes necessary for work there.
   New transport works also using a cable, but it doesn't matter if the cable casually breaks. Unlike wheel cars where it has been noted, brakes join only in an emergency, the constraining system of this technics always in operating conditions. It is created at the expense of a rigid friction of polyurethane rubber transport surfaces and floor ways. Besides, railway lines should be mounted not less than in a month. Linear columns of scraper conveyors can be put down after a combine.
   Safe people and cargoes delivery to a face was the initial purpose of the scientist working out only a new transport type . Then Oleg Arkadevich was dawned by other thought: is it possible to take out coal from a face using such a way, isn’t it? To prepare a clearing face for a work there are necessary many months of underground miners work . In the beginning separate sections for driftings are scratch-framed conveyors, actuators, electric motors, racks and then instead of them other, more powerful transport chain — the belt conveyor which helps to deliver coal from a clearing face to the surface . Whether it is necessary to speak about what is the time and means spends to find ways to a coal layer. Scientist-designer Atrushkevich suggests to refuse completely these conveyors and to use for coal transportation floor road. Now the extracted in a face coal using by a reloader will move in the special bunker in a volume of 12-15 tons which is established also on a new floor way. Coal will be taken out to an inclined trunk where it is unloading for the further lifting to the surface. As you can see, simply, reliably, quickly and the main thing is cheaply. The floor road from the polyurethane rubber coverings linear columns of scraper conveyors and it solves a problem about a safe people and cargoes delivery to a face, and about coal giving on a surface. Thus, there is a possibility to one and a half kilometres of mountain developments to pass in general without conveyors. And it means twice, and even three times to raise modern drifting rates. Today miners of any enterprise can only dream about it.
   Germany, Poland, England and some other countries let out technics for transportation of people and cargoes in underground conditions. But the domestic equipment is difficult to adapt for our working conditions, it is much more expensive. Hydrominners of Novokuznetsk do not say about a cost of the novelty. The underground floor road, carriages, carts, the bunker for coal , all of it is possible to make at any machine-building factory or even in a well equipped mechanical shop. After all полиуретан, rubber, scraper conveyors and cables, metal is on any mine. And any brigade of the qualified assemblers-welders can make assemblage of carriages and carts, bunkers. And again there is a simplicity and availability, safety and reliability, high efficiency and small cost.
   Recently in research-and-production association "Hydrocoal" and HYDROCOAL institute have passed many tests of new technics and technologies. Commissioning of a stepping-supporting heading-and- winning machine SSHWА-3 was designed also by Atrushkevich. . It became the appreciable phenomenon in scientific and technical progress of the coal industry, by the way, Oleg Atrushkevich’s machine is able for all to do: it passes mountain developments and extracts coal, conducts working out of layers in the most complicated mountain-geological conditions by means of water and without it. Therefore it is convenient for work as in hydromines and in dry faces. By means of this unique technics miners of “Highland-2” coalmining enterprise lead up a labour productivity on drifting mountain developments to amazing results — 20-40 metres in change, and in a coal mining stepped over a boundary of 400 tons on the worker in a month.
   To achievement of such successes helps not only a unique combine. The main reason is in a complex of conditions which are created by the new hydraulic technology in the coal mining, developed all the same Atrushkevich. Today it is tested on nine mines of Kuzbass and claimed by miners of Khakassia and the Far East.
   Miners of Siberia show the big interest to one novelty of Kuzbass hydrominers. This is a question about coalmining enterprises building . Usually the first tons of coal from large underground mine are necessary to wait for long years. It is possible to avoid a speaking about the enclosed means, they are measured by very powerful figure, therefore the last decade in Russia was not audible about start-up of the new underground enterprises, the expensive they managed to the state. Research-and-production association "Hydrocoal" and its scientific base — “Hydro coal”institute has gone on other way. They build coalmining enterprises not on 2-3 million tons of coal pеr year but on 600-800 thousand. At such mountain enterprises there is a lot of advantages. The main things are the minimum capital expenses and no more half a year building term. The similar enterprises are favourable and convenient for building on a place so-called unprofitable and consequently closed mines. In "Anzherskaya" coalmining enterprise hydrominers took the large block thrown by miners of coal-fields and for two months had constructed a new mine, naming as experimental. An industrial run-in passed for everything, that recently was developed in scientific laboratories of institute and it was testing on a “Hydro coal” range. There is a stepping-supporting heading-and-winning machine SSHWMA-3, a coal dehydrator, an underground enrichment, crushing-classifying sections complexes with a gravitational crusher and set of other means for a drifting mountain developments and coalmining.
   It is necessary to note that not only initiative and organising abilities by Atrushkevich, but also its ability without uniform rouble of the state help to develop great volume of scientific researches and their introduction in manufacture. It has organised a surprising alloy of a science and manufacture. How was it earlier? Scientists think out any useful thing and go on production workers that take it in the industrial testing. It was necessary to go sometimes for years. The novelty grows old, loses the importance. Scientists of “Hydro-coal” institute with experts of "Hydrocoal" and miners are other mutual relations. They work in common for the sake of the general advantage. In this connection — about one novelty which, the truth, to hydroextraction does not concern, but it is closely connected with coal. The big problem for railwaymen is clearing of coal cars after the unloading. It is especially difficult in the winter. To solve this problem the governor A. G.Tuleyev well familiar has offered. Scientists have responded, have contacted "Hydrocoal", railwaymen and have spent a number of experiments, have constructed the unique system which helps the car. Just in ten seconds it is completely cleared of the frozen together pieces of coal, fragments of boards. Beams, executioner's blocks. A similar complex in the world  does not exist yet. Such a complex has been mountedd at the Terentevskaya station, the patent for the invention is in Kuzbass scientists hands.
   Oleg Atrushkevich answers a question on prospects of scientific activity so: scientists finish working out which will deduce us on the world level. It is deserted dredging of coal from a face.
   Now it is preparing a wheelless tram. In a week-other miners of the “Anzherskaya-southern” coalmining enterprise will approach on it ,on the workplace in comfortable conditions. «An underground expensive life» miners named working out of scientists. Coal will go to the surface very soon.
Michael ERSHOV.
IN PICTURES: O.A.Atrushkevich; by «an underground tram».
Photo from archive NPO "Hydrocoal". Novokuznetsk.

   Oleg Arkadevich Atrushkevich. Was born in Novokuznetsk. Hi is 30 years old. He has ended ¬ the Moscow mining college with a distinction. The Engineer-developer. He served as the commander of rocket calculation nuclear underwater boats on the Northern fleet. Since 1993 — he is the leading designer of the “Hydro coal” institute . Since 1995 — the assistant to the general director of the “Hydro coal” institute about the science. Since 1998 — the general director of "Hydrocoal". The inventor. The author of 30 monographies, scientific articles concerning integrated furs but - hydraulic technologies in coalmining. He is preparing the thesis for a doctor's degree.