20. The new approach and the prospect for questions resolution about the industrial safety in coalmining enterprises.

Surkov A.V., Doctor of Technical Science (Kuznetsk administration of Gosgortekhnadzor RF)
Atrushkevich O.A., Doctor of Technical Science ("Hydro-coal" institute )

   The wide range of the mining and geological conditions variety of the coal layers occurrence, the imperfection of the mining technological processes , the obsolete concepts of the safe working conditions guarantee in the coalmining enterprises, and there is also the originally practical impracticability of the founded guarantee requirements for the safe working conditions of varied systems, all of them is the main reasons for catastrophes, tragedies and crisis situations in the coal branch. Findings of the commission according to the different accidents fact in the coalmining enterprises confirm it. The main reasons for it are uniform:
   1. The traditional way of conducting mine workings with the destruction of a coal-rock mass and the formation of a dense methane-dust-air environment in the face space and the subsequent separation beside the components with the flow. Methane concentrates above, the coal dust settles beyond the soil, and an air is in the center. The complicating factor in this process is the dust drying out heated by the dehydrated air and by the imitation layer covering for the sake of an inert dust, which has different density in the comparison with the coal dust.
   2. The imperfection of the technological destroying the coal mass process with complex-mechanized coal mining having the high concentration in the intensive destruction zone of the methane-dust-air environment and the absence even of the theoretical scientific foundations of the dust-suppression and the effective averaging of the methane-air environment by the cutting of face's space. In this case the developed space above the mechanized complex is filled for the sake of the methane-dust-air mixture of the increased concentration.
   3. The technological coalmining imperfection as a whole, which prevents an exclusion and a prohibition of the explosives application due to the mine conditions with all production processes as the most dangerous and a complex process of guarantee the safe conditions during the mine workings.
   4. The complicated mechanization of all mining processes includes: the different-types of heading machines for the development coal and rock workings, the mechanized complexes, transport systems, cargo- man delivering systems and the small-scale mechanization means.
   5. The inelasticity of the existing traditional systems of coal production to the complicated mining and geological conditions that leads down to the sharp decrease in security level of mining operations.
   Does possess the contemporary science branch with the entire range of the practical-scientific works, which ensure the sharp increase in the safe production conditions of all forms of underground works, doesn't it?
   Have it been already solved the enumerated above problems, haven't it? But if it was solved, why then there had been such a deferred-action process of realization?
   The objective and more deepened analysis of practical-scientific developments, their highly effective usage in a large number of coalmining enterprises made it possible with a deep practical-scientific conviction to say: problems have been solved, science ensured the possibility for the solution of enumerated above problems and it ensures the possibility to avoid large-scale catastrophes and accidents.
   The essence of the problems solution contains a fundamentally new concept of the accelerated coalmines building based on the mechanical-hydraulic technology with the underground dehydration and the underground enrichment, developed by the "Hydro-coal" institute and also by the entire range of the fundamentally new guarantee means adapted both to a different standardization of mine workings, purification works and to the mining and geological conditions.
   The solution of the guarantee normal powder-gas regime in the preparatory face's problem can be solved due to the application of the fundamentally new heading -and-winning stepping-supporting machine HWM-3 based on the mixing of water-dust-methane-air mixture directly in the zone of operating unit developed by Atrushkevich O.A., the young scientist, Doctor of Technical Sciences . Specifically, making of this mixture in the face space, hydraulic transport of coal in the form of pulp from the zone of destruction provides a decision according to the given graphs (Pic. 1,2, 3) the safe working conditions in the preparatory face on the powder-gas factor. The important role in this process plays the factor of an increase in the relative humidity down the maximum level at this temperature, which ensures the more effective distance of methane from the preparatory face.
   At the whole the flow technology of driving workings in combination with the hydraulic conveying raises the level of the safety in a coalmining enterprise as far as two orders and more.
   This conclusion can be taken without the conclusive unit as axiom, during the enumeration of the excluded complicated technological it is a team and a simplification in all processes of the preparation of coal production, namely:
   1.It is excluded the need of applying all multifaceted in the world practice standardization of tracked equipment not possessing by a necessary system of stability and by the necessary cutting range of mine workings, or not maintaining the angular range of mine workings from - 30o to + 30o taking into account of a water contaminability and a rock fortress.
   2. During the mine workings it can't be used are excluded strip and rake conveyers as the dust-forming technological links, flammable, work consuming in the exploitation which eliminate the cargo-man delivery beside the face and requiring equipment for the sake of the guarantee complex systems of for the safe conditions of their work.
   3. The hydraulic transportation means of rock mass or bunker transportation are combined to the united system of cargo-man delivery with the constantly operational braking system and the united traction drive down entering the length of mine working in the limits of one kilometer, i.e., there are excluded the wheel- rail unreliable delivery systems on the inclined and horizontal workings.  
   4. The need for cleaning and neutralizing the coal dust with the application of inert additives is excluded, and it is also excluded the reason for occupational diseases as the anthracosis and the silicosis. 
   5.The installation of face timbering is ensured under the attached space, and the installation of a permanent without an ampoule anchor timbering is conducted flow above the supporting- stepping and heading-and-winning machine HWM-3M.
   6. The proposed concept of the accelerated block reserves assimilation by the inclines with the guarantee complex of a problem's solution driving irrigated inclined minings simplifies the system of ventilation, sharply raising the reliability of all guarantee systems.
   7. It is excluded the need for the usage during the workings reserves the capital-intensive mechanized complexes with a large number of unresolved problems of the reliable guarantee the safe conditions with the carrying out of works in different technological links and the unresolved questions of a dust-suppression, and also with the complicated unsafe delivery systems, a mounting and a dismantling. 
   8. It has been provided the system maintenance of the prescribed relative humidity of air in the coalmines, which solves many security issues both before the developed space and before the entire infrastructure of coalmine workings.
   9. However the principal prevailing special feature of the concept in the coalmine building and technology is the guarantee of the exclusion possibility of a whole blasting both in the process of the building and with the carrying out of coal mining.  
   The technical and technological solutions of problems are given in the normative documents, the instructions, the articles and the monographs, and it is in general form shown on the technological scheme (Pic.4).
   Specifically, this direction, as most acceptable for the complicated mining geological conditions of Russian layers can become the reactivation base of coal branch as a whole.  

Authors:

Surkov A.V.
Atrushkevich O.A.